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Prose, Lord Of The Flies, Writing, Essays, Prose Analysis
A Scaffolded Essay Guide to Lord of the Flies
At the beginning of the novel, Ralph stands on his head and celebrates the fact that there are no adult survivors.
This is a dream come true. How does this dream turn into a nightmare?
It is true that at the beginning of the novel that in conversation with Piggy that Ralph celebrates the fact that there are no adults on the island. I think he…
Within hours of celebrating the lack of adult supervision. Ralph assumes the role of…
The dream really turns into a night mare when…
Another key aspect of the nightmare is when…
Some writers celebrate life. Golding seems to…
The author had read Coral Island and he was depressed by what he saw. In this tale… (You might need to google this to see why Golding was unhappy with children’s book)
Golding had been a school teacher, so he knew… (what might a teacher know about how REAL children behave? Just think of behaviour you see on the playground)
Golding had served in the armed forces. This experience taught him that… (what view of humanity might you get by witnessing war at close quarters? Would it disturb you in any way? How?)
The irony is that in the macrocosm or outer world, people are at war. This island is a microcosm. Instead of being a refuge from conflict, it is…
The central protagonists in this graphic tale are…
Piggy may lack charisma, but…
In Hebrew, “Beelzebub” appears as the name of a god worshipped by the Philistines. Reference to Beelzebub was almost certainly pejorative and grew to be used among other terms for Satan.
Ba‘al Zebûb means ’ ‘Lord of things that fly’ and this gives us the common translation “Lord of the Flies”. We can now see why Golding chose this translation as the name for his novel on the demonic actions of children.
In Christianity, the name Beelzebub may appear as an alternate name for Lucifer or the devil. As with several religions, the names of any earlier foreign or “pagan” deities often became synonymous with pejorative terms.
The boys on the island busy themselves looking for a beast or demon. We are painfully aware of the irony here. There is indeed a devil on the island… or rather several and they are openly on view. Looking closely at the action in Golding’s novel, I consider that ...………………………..could be described as a demon because ………………………..
The potential paradise becomes hell on earth...[ read full article ] »
Hot Entries, Teaching Ideas, Teaching Ideas & Skills Development, Writing, Comparative Analysis, Comparing & Contrasting
Several specifications require comparison: of known texts, of known with unseen texts, or of all unseen texts. These may be literary or linguistic comparisons, or there may be a requirement to combine both techniques. The activities here include ways of developing comparative skills that will benefit all of these kinds of exam and coursework tasks. Each activity has a short introduction in italics to indicate the kind of task that it is most suited as preparation and practice for. The majority of these activities are about allowing students to make comparisons between texts, while the last section is focused on helping students to develop the skill of writing comparatively.
Activities in the ‘developing analytical writing’ section will also be relevant to classes working towards comparative analysis in their exam or coursework, while the ‘practising linguistic analysis’ and ‘practising literary analysis’ sections will also hold some relevant ideas for carrying out this kind of work.
- Slips of paper indicating parts of set texts
- Large collection of texts, divided into piles
- Six texts each of different types/genres
This activity is relevant for all kinds of comparative task – set texts and/or ‘unseen’ texts.
The randomness can be achieved in different ways, depending on the demands of your specification:
- Students select one poem or short story from each collection by drawing slips of paper (cutting up the contents page is a quick and easy way of doing this). A collection of extracts from longer set texts on paper slips might also be appropriate (e.g. from ‘x’ on p.xx to ‘y’ on p.yy, or Act x scene y, lines a-b).
- Students grab one each from two (or more) piles of texts. This can be managed so that each pile has a different genre or form (e.g. for the combined lang-lit course, you might have a literature pile, a transcripts pile and a media/non-fiction texts pile etc), theme, writer or period.
- Students roll dice to determine which of six texts in each set they will work with. This way, different students will be working on the same text, but probably in combination with different texts – as long as they roll the dice for each set separately.
This is great for encouraging students to stretch and think beyond obvious comparisons. Even if their exam will not give them unrelated texts, practising with texts with no immediate link can be immensely helpful to their...[ read full article ] »
Hot Entries, Prose, Wuthering Heights, Writing, Prose Analysis, AQA GCSE, OCR GCSE, WJEC GCSE
I teach some students with special needs and I found one particular technique really useful when tackling Pre-Twentieth Century Literature recently.
To put the lesson in context, I try to enter my autistic students for GCSE English examination as soon as possible.
This gets them used to the system and the particular demands of the syllabus, particularly in coursework and the examination itself.
Some students thus take the examination as early as Year 8 or Year 9 in the first instance.
Results have been remarkable with typical progressions from D, to C to B grades or E, to D to C grades over the past few years for many of my students.
I know that such achievements would not be apparent if I just allowed them to take their GCSEs solely in Year 11. For my students, familiarity does not breed contempt, it breeds success.
Below, I will exemplify one technique I have used to boost success in English with reference to Wuthering Heights.
1. First, I will show how an autistic student approached an essay on a set text.
2. Secondly I will outline my “intervention”.
3. Thirdly I will show you the end product.
This technique was used to produce a piece of GCSE coursework but it could be employed to prepare candidates for the controlled assessment too.
As is the norm with my students who initially have an aversion to text, particularly with such an intimidating tome, I used a DVD of Wuthering Heights to familiarise the students with the material.
I found the ITV 1998 version particularly useful for this purpose because it includes the Lockwood Rahmenerzählung or “frame story” found in the original novel and it proves to be very accessible by the students I teach on a daily basis with its gutsy performances.
We analysed the action in class and I spent a good deal of time discussing the infamous “Nellie, I am Heathcliff” scene, which in the novel takes place in Chapter Nine.
Realising that we needed to do a bit of VAK (visual/auditory/kinaesthetic) reinforcement of my teaching points we then “visualised” a pivot in class, using a 30cm ruler and a lump of clay. We rocked the ruler back and forth over this clay pivot and we decided that it looked a lot like a seesaw.
I then asked them to see Chapter Nine as a “pivot” in the novel, suggesting that the action up to this point was a love story, but after this PIVOTAL point it becomes more of a story...[ read full article ] »
Hot Entries, AQA A Level, AQA A Level English Literature A, LITA1, LITA2, LITA3, LITA4, AQA A Level English Literature B, LITB1, LITB2, LITB3, LITB4, EDEXCEL A Level, EDEXCEL A Level English Literature, 6ET01, 6ET02, 6ET03, 6ET04, OCR A Level, OCR A Level English Literature, F661, F662, F663, F664, WJEC A Level, WJEC A Level English Literature, LT1, LT2, LT3, LT4
Categories: Hot Entries, AQA A Level, AQA A Level English Literature A, LITA1, LITA2, LITA3, LITA4, AQA A Level English Literature B, LITB1, LITB2, LITB3, LITB4, EDEXCEL A Level, EDEXCEL A Level English Literature, 6ET01, 6ET02, 6ET03, 6ET04, OCR A Level, OCR A Level English Literature, F661, F662, F663, F664, WJEC A Level, WJEC A Level English Literature, LT1, LT2, LT3, LT4
The fourteenth in the EnglishEdu series on ‘frameworks’ for A Level English Literature.
This guide explores how to help students analyse the context of novels, short stories or prose extracts in order to allow them access to the highest grades.
Context: On Chesil Beach by Ian McEwan
The most straightforward way of demonstrating how to analyse a text closely in terms of context is to exemplify it. The extract below is followed by a series of bullet points which demonstrate how to analyse closely using carefully chosen quotations in a variety of ways. These bullet points also include commentaries which aim to explain how and why such sections have been analysed and what they could highlight within the main text, contextually and thematically.
There are, of course, many more things that could be said about each extract, but it’s hoped that it will prove useful in your initial teaching stages to model it using the examples and then to ask students to find other things that they could analyse themselves as well as to consider ‘alternative’ interpretations and to derive possible contextual aspects.
From On Chesil Beach by Ian McEwan
[ read full article ] »
Between Edward and Florence, nothing happened quickly. Important advances, permissions wordlessly granted to extend what he was allowed to see or caress, were attained only gradually. The day in October he first saw her naked breasts long preceded the day he could touch them — December 19. He kissed them in February, though not her nipples, which he grazed with his lips once, in May. She allowed herself to advance across his own body with even greater caution. Sudden moves or radical suggestions on his part could undo months of good work. The evening in the cinema at a showing of A Taste of Honey when he took her hand and plunged it between his legs set the process back weeks. She became, not frosty, or even cool — that was never her way — but imperceptibly remote, perhaps disappointed, or even faintly betrayed. She retreated from him somehow without ever letting him feel in doubt about her love. Then at last they were back on course: when they were alone one Saturday afternoon in late March, with the rain falling heavily outside the windows of the disorderly sitting room of his parents’ tiny house in the Chiltern Hills, she let her hand rest briefly on, or near, his penis. For less than fifteen seconds, in rising hope and ecstasy, he felt her through two layers of fabric. As soon as she...
Different Cultures & Traditions, Poetry from Different Cultures, Hot Entries, Poetry, Analysing Poetry, Writing, Poetry Analysis, AQA GCSE, AQA GCSE English A, AQA GCSE English B, AQA GCSE English B (Mature), AQA GCSE English Literature A, AQA GCSE English Literature B
Categories: Different Cultures & Traditions, Poetry from Different Cultures, Hot Entries, Poetry, Analysing Poetry, Writing, Poetry Analysis, AQA GCSE, AQA GCSE English A, AQA GCSE English B, AQA GCSE English B (Mature), AQA GCSE English Literature A, AQA GCSE English Literature B
Click on the link below to download Jo Winwood’s PPT on The Clown Punk by Simon Armitage.
This resource is relevant to the following courses:
AQA GCSE English spec code 4700
AQA GCSE English Language spec code 4705
AQA GCSE English Literature spec code 4710
The anthology can also be used for Controlled Assessment in the following:
AQA English Literature Unit 5: Exploring Poetry
AQA English Unit 3: Understanding and producing creative texts
AQA English Language Unit 3: Understanding spoken and written texts and writing creatively
Hot Entries, Prose, Lord Of The Flies
Click on the link below to download Jo Winwood’s PowerPoint on Lord of the Flies.
KS3, Year 7, Year 8, Year 9, Teaching Ideas, Teaching Ideas & Skills Development, Writing, Essays, Persuasive Writing, AQA GCSE, AQA GCSE English A, AQA GCSE English B, AQA GCSE English B (Mature), AQA GCSE English Literature A, AQA GCSE English Literature B, OCR GCSE, OCR GCSE English, OCR GCSE English Literature, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE English, WJEC GCSE English Language, WJEC GCSE English Literature
Categories: KS3, Year 7, Year 8, Year 9, Teaching Ideas, Teaching Ideas & Skills Development, Writing, Essays, Persuasive Writing, AQA GCSE, AQA GCSE English A, AQA GCSE English B, AQA GCSE English B (Mature), AQA GCSE English Literature A, AQA GCSE English Literature B, OCR GCSE, OCR GCSE English, OCR GCSE English Literature, WJEC GCSE, WJEC GCSE English, WJEC GCSE English Language, WJEC GCSE English Literature
A ‘discourse marker’ is a word or phrase that helps to link written ideas. These words are generally more formal lexical items that find little use in speech – which is perhaps why they do not always come naturally to students.
Discourse markers can be used, for example, to link ideas that are similar (e.g. the adverbs, also and similarly); and they can be used to link ideas that are dissimilar (e.g. however, alternately).
As such, this useful group of words is an essential part of a student’s writing toolkit.
They work to help create a clear structure by acting as a kind of ‘linguistic signpost’ that contributes to a well-constructed essay or argument. They provide a sense of clarity, coherence, fluency and logic to a piece of writing.
The discourse markers covered in the resources provided with this ‘toolkit’ are, essentially, for essay writing, but a list of more generally useful discourse markers is also included.
Why discourse markers are an essential teaching tool
For students, clarity and structure do not always come automatically. Students may be aware of the more basic, commonly used discourse markers in speech, such as then, so, after that, instead of…., but when faced with new forms of writing, extended writing or more formal writing; or when faced with the rigours of an argumentative essay, they often have trouble in ordering and sequencing their ideas fluently.
This is why discourse markers are an essential part of their own linguistic toolkit – and why they figure so highly in mark schemes and examiners’ comments.
Providing students with discourse markers as a ‘toolkit’ will help them in both their organisation of ideas and improve their written expression. More than this, a knowledge and use of discourse markers actually helps a student see how to write about a topic more clearly.
A straightforward example of how this works is to give a low set KS3 class who are stuck with ‘and’ and ‘then’, discourse markers which sequence simple materials such as: first, secondly, finally; ask them to find ideas to match with each discourse marker before and then write this up.
An extension would be to teach more complex essay structures that require an opinion supported by a clear argument.
By being able to use discourse markers, students will then be able to develop a clearer argumentative,...[ read full article ] »
Hot Entries, Writing, Descriptive Writing
Describe a visit to a fairground.
You should aim to write 1½-2 sides, perhaps 4-500 words, spending 40 minutes on the question.
Click on the link below to download this resource in Word format.
Exemplars, Exemplar Materials, Students' Work, Students' Essays, AQA A Level, AQA A Level English Literature A, LITA3
[This is a response to the Specimen Question Paper at:
Hardy and Shakespeare both write about the parting of those who love each other. However, the partings contrast greatly in that the love of Romeo and Juliet is reciprocated, whilst Marty and Giles were never a couple. This is emphasised by Romeo and Juliet being alive and together on stage and Giles being dead in ‘The Woodlanders’. However, the image of death does play an important role in both extracts.
Death is the ultimate reason for the parting of those who love each other and this comes across strongly in the two extracts. It is both the reason Romeo and Juliet must part in extract C, as Romeo has killed a member of Juliet’s family, and what will happen to Romeo if he stays. The threat of death is very foreboding in this scene, Juliet says the ‘nightingale … sings on yon pomegranate tree’. The reference to the pomegranate could be an allusion to the myth of Persephone who has to remain in the world of the dead for half the year as a result of eating some pomegranate seeds. In ‘The Woodlanders’, Marty is visiting the grave of Giles, the man she loved. So again death has an important role. Marty herself appears quite ghost like in this extract. She is a ‘motionless figure’ and ‘a solitary and silent girl stood there in the moonlight’. This further emphasises the theme of death as Marty has almost died with her love, just like Romeo and Juliet at the end of the play.
Both extracts are set at night which highlights the secrecy of the love in each. Romeo describes how the ‘more light and light; more dark and dark our woes’. The symbol of light here emphasises that light exposes the truth. This compares to ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ when Blanche describes the parting of her and her first husband. She describes how the ‘searchlight’ went out when he died and from then on there has been no strong beam of light to expose the truth about herself. In fact, she has avoided any light so that she can create a façade of deceit. In comparison, Marty is visiting the grave at night because her love is secret also.
The love in both extracts the love is extremely strong. The closeness of Romeo and Juliet is shown through the conceit of the lark and nightingale symbolising night and day which is used in both their speeches. This compares to ‘A Valediction...[ read full article ] »
Dramatic Monologues, A Cream Cracker under the Settee (ACCUTS)
AQA A Level, AQA A Level English Language & Literature B, ELLB3
ELLB3 Talk in Life and Literature
A Comprehensive Guide to the vocabulary needed and how it can be used to gain a top grade
ELLB3 is a module that requires a detailed understanding of how conversations work within life, and through this understanding that comments can then be made on how playwrights manipulate language, structure and form to create drama within a play. The following terminology can be used to answer both Question 1- the text based question and Question 2- the unseen question comparing a transcript with an extract from a play, prose or poetry.
It is essential that you have a good understanding of all of these terms and that you have practised applying and analysing them to the set text in addition to extracts from poems and novels. Whenever a talk feature is applied, the context of the conversation must be considered.
What is an everyday conversation?
The term conversation refers to talk that involves more than one participant. The connotations of ‘everyday conversation’ may suggest an interaction that is spontaneous, private, equal, perhaps trivial and usually polite. When applying this to the set text the public or private nature of the text should be considered carefully as this will have an impact on the language used.
It is important to note that when writing about your set text the person who is speaking in the conversation is referred to as the character or you specifically use the character’s name. Whereas, when responding to transcripts in Question 2 the person speaking is referred to as the speaker. Never refer to a character when responding to transcripts as this will lose you marks. To gain a top grade you must be clearly and consistently showing the examiner that you understand the differences between talk in life and literature.
How do conversations work?
Turn-taking is intrinsically linked with power and status and these key terms should feature in any essay that you write. Look carefully at who takes the most turns or speaks for the longest amount of time (holding the floor). You can see just by glancing at the text in front of you who is taking the most turns so this is a concept that should be applied early on in an essay. Don’t make the mistake of overlooking this merely because it is a more obvious concept.
Context should be considered here, as taking the most turns does not necessarily mean that the speaker is in control. Consider an interview situation. The interviewee says the most,...[ read full article ] »
Poetry, Analysing Poetry, Writing, Poetry Analysis
Poetic Techniques used in Stealing and My Last Duchess
Write examples of the poetic technique on the left from the two poems.
There may be just one example or several. Include as many as you can.
Leave the space blank if there are no examples of the technique in the poem.
Drama, Macbeth, Shakespeare, Shakespeare's Plays, Writing, Drama Analysis, AQA GCSE, AQA GCSE English A
This teaching guide is designed as a self-contained unit for students of medium to high ability. It can be used to produce the AQA A GCSE Shakespeare coursework and has been designed for assessment via the EN2/Lit Oral Response Option (although it could easily also be adapted to provide a written response).
The AQA A Shakespeare coursework is what is termed as a ‘cross-over’ piece; therefore, if you are using it for assessment for both English and English Literature GCSEs (the most common approach), the student will need to be able to address the assessment objectives for both.
Let us remind ourselves of these:
Candidates are required to demonstrate their ability to:
i. Read, with insight and engagement, making appropriate references to texts and developing and sustaining interpretations of them.
iv. Select material appropriate to their purpose, collate material from different sources, and make cross references.
v. Understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic, structural and presentational devices to achieve their effects, and comment on ways language varies and changes.
Candidates are required to demonstrate their ability to:
AO1: Respond to texts critically, sensitively and in detail, selecting appropriate ways to convey their response, using textual evidence as appropriate.
AO2: Explore how language, structure and forms contribute to the meanings of texts, considering different approaches to texts and alternative interpretations.
AO4: Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts and literary traditions.
As this unit is aimed at medium to high ability students, it is also useful to consider the general and specific criteria for a typical A grade response for both specifications:
Candidates appreciate and analyse alternative interpretations, making cross references where appropriate. They develop their ideas and refer in detail to aspects of language, structure and presentation, making apt and careful comparison within and between texts.
Candidates show analytical and interpretative skills when evaluating:
- the play’s moral and philosophical context
- significant achievements within the dramatic genre
- Shakespeare’s exploitation of language for dramatic, poetic and figurative effect
Candidates respond critically and sensitively to texts, exploring alternative approaches and interpretations....[ read full article ] »