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English Literature ‘Frameworks’ 2: Openings

Steph Atkinson | Sunday October 31, 2010


Guide Navigation

  1. Close Reading & Textual Analysis
  2. Close Analysis
  3. Openings
  4. Characters and Characterisation
  5. Setting, Places and Scenes
  6. Atmosphere, Mood, Tone and Foreshadowing
  7. Dialogue
  8. Description, Imagery, Figurative Language
  9. Irony
  10. Alternative Interpretations
  11. Narrative
  12. Verisimilitude
  13. Time
  14. Symbolism
  15. Context
  16. Genre



This is the second in the Englishedu series on ‘analytical frameworks’ aimed, primarily, at A Level English Literature teachers.

The guides are loosely based on the English Language A level idea of ‘analytical frameworks’ – a way that allows students a more methodical way of viewing texts at various analytical levels to help them create subtler and thus better commentaries and discussions on any text under study.

Each ‘framework’ is covered in detail and its use is exemplified using textual examples chosen from popular literary texts used across all exam board syllabuses. As with the English Language frameworks, the idea is that students learn and practise the use of each framework on texts they are studying before choosing to apply them more appropriately for use in exams and coursework.

  • Although written with A-level in mind, many of the frameworks and guides could easily be adapted for use in Years 10 and 11 for GCSE English and English Literature.

In this second guide, using many textual examples, we explore the analysis of the openings of novels, short stories and prose extracts. The methods shown and the hints and tips given are designed to allow students access to the highest grades.

The opening of a literary text: 1984 by George Orwell

The most straightforward way of demonstrating a close analysis of a text is to exemplify it, thus the extract below is followed by a close analysis of hopefully useful quotations, all analysed in a variety of ways. These bullet points also include commentaries which aim to explain how and why such sections have been analysed and how such an analysis...

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